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四级翻译预测:中国饮食文化

更新时间:2021-06-30 09:25来源:未知

四级考试临近,为了帮助广大考生过级,特开辟新栏目,每天一篇翻译练习(选取最有可能考的翻译题材、段落),供大家日常练习用。

声明:押题只是练习翻译手感,积累话题词汇,练习常考句式结构,切勿迷信。

中国饮食文化

01

在中国的南方和北方,饮食差异很大,也就是说,北方厨师(chef)所烹饪的菜肴口味更重,而在南方的食谱(recipe)中,菜肴的味道相对清淡。

有时我们说南方菜肴的美味在于它的甜度和新鲜。在中国的一些省份,如宁夏、河北、四川、陕西和云南,餐食多为辣味,这是由于湿冷的天气和高海拔(high altitude)所导致的。

人们认为出汗是预防湿冷气候导致的疾病的一个好方法。

参考译文:

There is a big difference about the diets between Northern and Southern China, that is, the dishes made by Northern chefs are in heavier taste and those arecomparably light in Southern chefs' recipes.

Sometimes, we say it is tasty as sweet and fresh in Southern dishes. In some provinces of China like Ningxia, Hebei, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Yunnan, the diets are made hot and spicy because of the humid cold weather and high altitude.

People believe that to sweat is a good method for preventing diseases caused by humidity and cold.

难点点拨:

1.“饮食差异很大”可译为There is a big difference about the diets;“也就是说”可译为that is;“口味更重”可译为in heavier taste;“相对清淡”可译为comparably light。

2.“美味在于它的甜度和新鲜”可译为it is taste as sweet and fresh。

3.“餐食多为辣味”可译为the diets are made hot and spicy。

4.“预防湿冷气候导致的疾病的一个好方法”可译为a good method for preventing diseases caused by humidity and cold。

中国饮食文化

02

中国饮食文化(dining)可以追溯到几千年前。从秦朝开始,典型的饭菜结构就是以米饭为主,辅以少量肉类和蔬菜。

几千年的创意积累和广泛的地方菜肴交流不仅带来了各种美食,也丰富了烹饪手段和食材选择,其中有令外国人目瞪口呆的狗肉、猪血甚至昆虫。

现代中国美食享誉世界,筷子和饺子是外国人熟悉的中国饮食文化的象征,一些其他的节日特色食品,例如月饼,也逐渐为人所知。

参考译文:

The Chinese dining culture can be traced back millenniums. Ever since the beginning of the Qin Dynasty, a typical meal has been composed mainly of rice, supplemented by small amounts of meat and some vegetables.

Over the thousands of years, the accumulated creative ideas and extensive exchanges of regional diets have not only given rise to various kinds of delicious foods, but also enriched the culinary arts and increased food choices—including dog meat, pig blood and even insects, which stunned some foreigners.

Contemporary Chinese cuisines are globally-renowned; chopsticks and jiaozi, which are familiar to foreigners, have become symbols of Chinese dining culture, and some special festival-related foods such as the mooncake are gradually becoming known.

难点点拨:

1.“可以追溯到几千年前”还有其他表达方法,如date back thousands of years,can be traced back to millennia ago。

2.“结构以……为主”可以译成be composed mainly of或者deal mainly with。在compose of,deal with与副词连用时,有些考生往往将副词放在整个词组之外,如be mainly composed of,mainly deal with,其实将副词插入词组中间更地道。

3.“辅以少量肉食和菜蔬”可以作为后置定语成分,译成supplemented by small amounts of meat and some vegetables。

4.在翻译“不仅……也/而且……”这样的结构时,一定要注意结构平衡。此处此处如果译成not only have given rise to various kinds of delicious foods,but also enriched…,其结构就不对称了。

5.“令外国人目瞪口呆的”这个修饰语比较复杂,故将其处理成后置定语,可以译成make foreigners surprised/stunned,但译成stun foreigners则更简明。

6.表达“象征”时,考生可能会想到三个近义词:sign,signal,symbol,但往往分不清他们的区别。sign表示“记号,标记,征兆”,用法最广,常指符号,例如the mathematical signs(数学符号)。signal表示“信号”,常指用于传达某些信息的信号,也指灯光、声音或信号标志,例如the traffic signals“交通信号”。symbol表示“象征,符号”,指被人们选出的物体或图案,用来代表另一事物,并作为该事物的标记或象征,例如A Benz car is a symbol of wealth(奔驰车是财富的象征)。综上,此处应选用symbol。

7.在翻译“一些其他的节日特色食品,例如月饼”时,有的考生可能会将定语后置,译成some other foods that are characteristic of some special festivals such as the mooncake,但这种译法后置定语过长,会导致the mooncake距离foods太远,不便于读者理解。一般说来,在修饰语数量不多的时候,建议优先考虑前置定语。

8.汉语具有一定的模糊性,对动词的时态,不同读者有时会有不同的解读。原中文中的“也逐渐为人所知”可能是现在进行时,也可能是现在完成时,翻译时除了可使用以上参考译文中的现在进行时are gradually becoming known,也可以使用现在完成时:have gradually become known。

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