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新概念英语第一册语法总结:现在完成时

更新时间:2021-04-18 16:50来源:未知

现在完成时
构成:主语+助动词have, has+过去分词

用法:
1) 表示过去发生的和现在有某种联系的动作,常和just, usually, already, since等时间副词连用。
I have just had lunch. (饱了,不用再吃了。)
He has had a cup of tea.(不渴了,不用再喝。)
They have already had their holiday. (不能再度假了。)
The boy has already read the book. (已经知道书的内容了,不用再看了。)

2) 询问别人是否做过某事一般用现在完成时:
Have you finished your homework?
Have you been to Beijing?
Has he seen the film?

3) 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作
I have lived in Beijing for twenty years.
I have worked for this school for 1 year.

4) 表示一种经历,经验:去过…地方,做过…事情,经历过…事情
I have never had a bath.
I have never seen a film.
I have never been to cinema.
I have ever been to Paris.
Have been to表示去过,have gone to 表示去了
I have been to London.(人已经回来)
He has gone to London.(人还在那里)

5) 表示一种结果, 一般不和时间副词联用
I have lost my pen.
I have hurt myself.
He has become a teacher.
She has broken my heart.

句型变化:
★变疑问句将助动词移到句首,变否定句在助动词后面加not.
Have you lost your pen? I have not lost my pen.

★肯定回答及否定回答
Yes, I have. / No, I have not.

★特殊疑问句
What have you done?
What has he done?

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别:
凡是有明确的表示过去的时间状语的句子为过去时。
注意:有些动词表示的动作有一个终点,不能再延续,因此不能和表示一段时间状语连用。
错:I’ve left Beijing for 3 days.
对:I left Beijing 3 days ago. I have been away from being for 3 days.