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典型高考英语陷阱题详解•非谓语动词

更新时间:2021-04-18 16:59来源:未知

1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.
A. enterB. to enter
C. enteringD. entered
陷阱容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。
分析其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句:
(1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。
(2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。
(3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。
值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带to不定式。请看以下试题:
(4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.
A. to hopeB. hope
C. hopingD. hoped
此题的答案是 C不是A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。
(5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.
A. practiseB. to practise
C. practisingD. practised
此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend ... (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.
(6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could _______ his oral English.
A. improveB. to improve
C. improvingD. to improving
此题答案选D,注意两点:一是 devote ... to ... 是固定搭配,意为"把......贡献给......";二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。

2. He knows nothing about it, so he can't help _______ any of your work.
A. doingB. to do
C. being doingD. to be done
陷阱容易误选A,根据 can't help doing sth 这一结构推出。
分析其实答案应选B。比较以下结构:
can't help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事
can't help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事
又如下面一题,答案也是 B:
She can't help ____ the house because she's busy making a cake.
A cleaningB. to clean
C. cleanedD. being cleaned
再请看以下试题:
While shopping, people sometimes can't help _____ into buying something they don't really need.
A. to persuadeB. persuading
C. being persuadedD. be persuaded
此题应选C,句中的 can't help 意为"禁不住"(注意根据句意用被动形式)。

3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.
A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing
C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析此题最佳答案为B。现分析如下:
(1) devote 意为"致力于,献身于",主要用 devote...to...或be devoted to,其中的to 是介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。
(2) 选A错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。
(3) 选B正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构,用作状语。
(4) 选C错误:因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将devoting改为devoted。
(5) 选D错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上and或so,则可选D,或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。
请做以下类似题(答案均选A):
(1) All the preparations for the project ______, we're ready to start.
A. completed B. have been completed
C. had been completed D. been completed
(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.
A. being, support B. was, support
C. has been, supporting D. is, to support
比较以下各题,答案选B,因为句中使用了并列连词and:
(1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we're ready to start.
A. completed B. have been completed
C. had been completed D. been completed
(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.
A. being, support B. was, support
C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

4. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult.
A. not make B. not to make
C. not making D. do not make
陷阱容易误选C,受题干中的逗号的影响,认为是现在分词表结果的用法。
分析其实答案应选B,句中的逗号相当于连词 and 或 but,not to make it more difficult 是对逗号前的不定式 to make life easier 的补充说明。此句的意思是"新技术的目的是为了使生活变得更容易,而不是使生活变得更困难"。两个不定式同时用以说明句子主语 purpose 的内容。请做以下类似试题(答案选B):
The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but _____ work for young people.
A. provide B. to provide
C. providing D. provided

5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back.
A. to be tied B. being tied
C. tied D. having tied
陷阱容易误选B。
分析最佳答案为C。从意义上看,hands 与 tie 的关系应属被动关系,故排除D。在A、B、C三个选项中,选项A比较容易排除,因为不定式表示将来意义,在此与语境不符。现将B和C作一比较:B为现在分词的被动式,它表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表进行,也就是说 his hands being tied 的实际意思是"他的手正在被捆住",这显然与语境不符。而C为过去分词,它也表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表示动词的完成或完成后的状态,此句中的 with his hands tied behind his back 可视为手被捆在背后的一种状态。由此可知最佳答案为C。请看下面一题:
Anyone ______ trying to take knives on heard flights would be caught by the police.
A. finds B. found
C. being found D. will find
答案选B而不选C,其中的过去分词表示被动和完成。
比较下面两题,最佳答案是D不是A,现在分词的被动式表示被动和进行:
(1) The court hears about 120 cases a year; visitors are welcome to see a case ______.
A. argued B. to be argued
C. to be arguing D. being argued
(2) The silence of the library was sometimes broken by an occasional cough or by the sound of pages _______.
A. turned B. having turned
C. to be turned D. being turned

6. Remind me _______ the medicine tomorrow.
A. of taking B. taking
C. to take D. take
陷阱容易误选A。受 remind sb of (doing) sth 这一常用结构的影响。
分析最佳答案为C。比较以下三个结构:
remind sb of [about] sth = 使某人想起某事
remind sb of doing sth = 提醒某人做过某事(暗示动作已发生)
remind sb to do sth = 提醒某人去做某事(暗示动作尚未发生)
请看两个例句:
I reminded him of his promise. 我提醒他做过的诺言。
My wife reminded me of seeing that film. 我妻子提醒我曾经看过那部电影。
Can you remind me to phone her tomorrow? 你明天能否提醒我给她打电话?

7. Once your business becomes international, _____ constantly will be part of your life.
A. you fly B. your flight
C. flight D. flying
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析最佳答案为D。由于空格后出现了constantly这一副词,这就说明不能选B或C,因为B、C均为名词,不能受副词 constantly 的修饰。A和D均是可能的,因为其中有动词 fly。但若选A,you fly 是一个主谓结构,与其后的谓语 will be 相冲突,所以只能选D,即动名词flying在此用作主语。

8. Not only should you get used ______ under difficult conditions but you also you pay more attention ______ your work well.
A. to work, to do B. to working, to doing
C. to work, to doing D. to working, to do
陷阱容易误选A,认为两个空白处均应填不定式。
分析正确答案为B,因为 get used to与pay attention to 这两个结构中的to均为介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不能动词原形。类似地,以下各结构中的 to 也是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时也应用动名词,而不是动词原形:
look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事
be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事
object to doing sth反对做某事
stick to doing sth 坚持做某事
get down to doing sth 开始做某事
take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事
admit to doing 承认做了某事
pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事
devote one's time to doing sth 把某人的时间用于(奉献于)做某事
be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事
What do you say to doing sth 你认为做某事怎么样

9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don't think it is necessary.
A. to buy B. buying
C. on buying D. in buying
陷阱容易误选B,误认为insist后不能接不定式,但可以接动名词。
分析答案应选C。其实,动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,因为insist 通常用作不及物动词;若语义上需接宾语,要借助介词 on或upon,即用于 insist on [upon] (doing) sth;但它有时的确也可用作及物动词,不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句,而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如:
He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。
I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。

10. "Do you have anything more ______, sir?" "No. You can have a rest or do something else."
A. typing B. to be typed
C. typed D. to type
陷阱容易误选D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。
分析最佳答案是B。确实,在"have+宾语+不定式"结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的,而是由说话者"我"来完成的。比较:
Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?
I'm going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去上海,我随身要带很多东西去。

11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor's office.
A. put B. to put
C. putting D. having put
陷阱容易误选B或C,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。
分析正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A):
I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.
A. paid B. paying
C. to pay D. having paid
但是,下面一题稍有不同:
Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance.
A. left; lain open B. leaving; lying open
C. leaving; lie opened D. left; lay opened
此题答案选B,leaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词leave有关,leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。

12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.
A. be, to do B. was, doing
C. be, doing D. was, to do
陷阱容易误选B。
分析其实正确答案是A。分析如下:
(1) 第一空填 be,是因为insisted 后接that从句,从句谓语要用"should+动词原形"这样的虚拟语气,其中的should也可省略。
(2) 第二空要填to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 ...should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of ... to do sth (利用......做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用),make the best of (尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:
(1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.
A. to build B. building
C. build D. built
此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构:
...make use of every part of the materials to build the power station
由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。
(2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?
A. making B. to make
C. how to make D. having made
此题答案选B,不是A。句子主语是 the way,you thought of 是修饰主语的定语从句,不定式 to make the water clean 也是修饰主语的定语,也就是说,句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。

13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.
A. carried out B. carrying out
C. carry out D. to carry out
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析答案选A。此句结构较复杂,现分析如下:
(1) that they would like to see _____ the next year 是修饰名词 the plan 的定语从句。
(2) 由于 the plan 与空格处的 carry out 有被动关系,故填过去分词 carried out。
请做以下类似试题:
(1) Who do you think you'd like _____ with you, a boy or a girl?
A. to have go B. to have to go
C. to have gone D. having to go
在确定答案之前,我们先来看看下面这个句子:
I think I'd like to have a boy go with me.
句中的 go 要用原形,这是因为其前有表示使役的动词have。在此句中,假若对名词a boy 提问,便可得出:
Who do you think you'd like to have go with you?
对照上面一题,答案很显然是A。
(2) Who did the boss _____ his car this time?
A. make wash B. make to wash
C. make washing D. making to wash
在做此题之前,也请先看看下面这个句子:
The boss made Jack wash his car this time.
假若对句中的名词Jack 提问,便可得出:
Who did the boss make wash his car this time?
由此可知上面题答案为A。
(3) You can never imagine what great difficulty I had ______ your house all by myself.
A. found B. finding
C. to find D. for finding
此题答案选B。考查的基本结构是 have great difficulty (in) doing sth。

14. How happy we are! The holiday we have been looking forward _______ at last.
A. to has come B. to have come
C. to having come D. has come
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析其实正确答案是A。大家知道,短语 look forward to意为"盼望",其中的 to 是介词,而不是不定式符号,所以后接动词要用动名词,许多同学据此便选择了C。但问题是,句中介词 to 的宾语不是have come,而是the holiday。正解的句子分析是:the holiday为句子主语,we have been looking forward to 是修饰主语的定语从句(介词 to 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,被省略),has come 是句子谓语。请做以下类似试题:
(1) The man you referred to _____ just now.
A. comes B. come
C. coming D. came
答案选D,句子主语为 the man,you referred to 为修饰 the man 的定语从句,空白处填 came,为句子谓语。
(2) The theory he sticks to ______ to be of no use in our studies.
A. proves B. prove
C. proving D. be proved
答案选A,he sticks to 是修饰主语 the theory 的定语从句,句子的基本结构为 The theory proves to be of no use in our studies.
(3) The work he devoted his time to _____ worth praising.
A. was B. be
C. being D. been
答案选A,he devoted his time to 是修饰主语 the work 的定语从句。句子的基本结构为 The work was worth praising.
(4) I think this is the very work that we must finish ____ her.
A. to help B. help
C. helping D. helped
答案是 A。句中空格处填的动词help 并不是 finish 的宾语,正确的句子分析是:that I must finish 是修饰名词 the very work 的定语从句,finish 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,其后的不定式 to help her 是目的状语。
(5) Which do you enjoy ____ your weekend, swimming or fishing?
A. spending B. being spent
C. spend D. to spend
答案选 D。enjoy 的宾语是句首的疑问词 which,不是其后的动词 spending。此题中的 to spend... 用作目的状语。
(5) What the boy enjoys _____ to have a room of his own.
A. being B. to be
C. is D. are
答案选C,而不选A。what the boy enjoys 是主语从句,空格处填的 is 为谓语动词。
(6) Nothing that he suggested _____ to be of any use.
A. prove B. proved C. proving D. to prove
答案选B,而不选C。句子主语是 nothing,that he suggested 是修饰主语的定语从句,suggested 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,而不是其后的动词;句子谓语是 proved。全句意为"他建议的情况没有一条是有用的。"
(7) The old house we paid a visit _____ at the top of the hill.
A. standing B. to stand
C. to standing D. to stands
答案选D。we paid a visit to 是修饰the old house 的定语从句,句中的stands 为主句谓语。
(8) The life he is now used _____ quite different from ours.
A. is B. to be
C. to being D. to is
答案选D。句中he is now used to 是修饰 the life 的定语从句,to 后的动词 is 是句子的谓语,句意为"他现在习惯的这种生活与我们的生活很不相同"。
(9) The work he paid special attention _____ to nothing.
A. came B. to come
C. to coming D. to came
答案选D。句中的he paid special attention to 是修饰 the work 的定语从句,to 后的动词 came 是句子的谓语,句意为"他特别关注的那项工作泡汤了"。
(10) The result what he said would lead _____ his regret in the future.
A. is B. to be
C. to being D. to was
答案选D。句中what he said would lead to 是修饰 the result 的定语从句,to 后的动词 was 是句子的谓语,句意为"他所说的话将导致的结果是他今后的后悔"。

15. _______ the road round to the right and you'll find his house.
A. Follow B. Following
C. To follow D. Followed
陷阱容易误选B或C,误认为这是非谓语动词作状语。
分析正确答案选A。根据句中的连词and 可推知它是一个并列句。假若将此题改为下面这样,则答案为B:
_______ the road round to the right, you'll find his house.
A. Follow B. Following
C. To follow D. Followed
但是,若改成下面一题这样,则答案为C(不定式短语表目的):
_______ the road round to the right, the blind man asked a boy to guide him.
A. Follow B. Following
C. To follow D. Followed
请做以下试题,答案均选A,都是因为句中的并列连词 and(填空句为祈使句):
(1) _______ to the top of the hill, and you can see the whole of the town.
A. Get B. To get
C. Getting D. Having got
(2) ______ the milk and set a good example to the other children.
A. Drink B. To drink
C. Drinking D. Having drinking
(3) ______ me, and then try to copy what I do.
A. Watch B. Watching
C. To watch D. Have watching
(4) _____ through this book and tell me what you think of it.
A. Look B. Looking
C. To look D. Having looked
(5) _____ it with me and I'll see what I can do.
A. Leave B. Leaving
C. If you leave D. When left
有时不用连词连接句子,而用破折号,情况也是一样(答案均选A)。如:
(6) _____ down the radio - the baby's asleep in the next room.
A. Turn B. Turning
C. to turn D. To have turned
(7) _____ some of this juice - perhaps you will like it.
A. Try B. Trying
C. To try D. To have tried
以下各题也应选A,是因为句中的从属连词 when, before, until 等(填空句为祈使句):
(8) ______ him enough time to get home before you telephone.
A. Give B. To give
C. Giving D. Given
(9) ______ left when you get to the end of the street.
A. Keep B. Keeping
C. To keep D. Kept
(10) ______ your hand over your mouth when you cough.
A. Put B. Putting
C. To put D. To be putting
(11)______ until the lights have turned to green.
A. Wait B. To wait
C. Waiting D. Having waited
(12) ______ the pieces of cloth with a loose stitch before finally sewing them together.
A. Join B. To join
C. Joining D. Joined
以下各题也应选A,因为填空句为祈使句:
(13) I don't want to listen a long story - just _____ me the result.
A. tell B. telling
C. to tell D. to be telling
(14) Why stand there watching - _____ and help us!
A. come B. coming
C. to come D. to be coming
(15) Don't waste your money on silly things - ______ it.
A. save B. to save
C. saving D. having saved
(16) First ______ the rice by washing it, then ______ it in boiling water.
A. prepare, cook B. preparing, cooking
C. preparing, cook D. prepare, cooking
(17) To test eggs, _____ them in a bowl of water: if they float they're bad, if they sink they're good.
A. put B. putting
C. to put D. to be putting
但是请注意,类似下面这样的题目情形有所不同,所填部分为目的状语(用不定式,即答案选B):
(18) ______ French well, she went to France to live with his cousins.
A. Study B. To study
C. Studying D. Having studied
(19) _____ late in the morning, Mr. Smith turned off the alarm.
A. Sleep B. To sleep
C. Sleeping D. Having slept
(20) ______ the flies out, we had to shut all the doors and windows.
A. Keep B. To keep
C. Keeping D. Having kept
(21) ______ their service, the workers of the hotel are active in learning English.
A. Improving B. To improve
C. Improve D. Having improved