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高考英语动词复习备考语法大全

更新时间:2021-04-18 16:55来源:未知

热点一:动词词义辨析

[热点透视]考查考生在特定语境中恰当运用动词能力。

[难点剖析] 备选动词词义相近,用法相似。

[考题盘点]

1.(03-25)If anybody calls ,tell them I’m out ,and ask them to ______their name and address.

A. pass B. write C. take D. leave

据题意应选leave, 表“留下”。其余动词不合题意,故选D。

[备考策略] ①结合语境,从区别词义着手;其次从用法上加以区别,如后跟to do\doing做宾语 ,还是跟双宾语,或者是复合宾语等。

②加强对考纲内重要近义动词的复习。如:spend ,waste , take, kill;raise, keep, support, feed等。

[过关训练]

2.(沪04-46) Hospital staff burst into cheers after doctors completed a 20-hour operation to have ___one-year-old twins at the head.

A. isolated B. separated

C. divided D. removed

3.(浙04-30) If you are feeling so tired ,perhaps a little sleep would ______.

A. act B. help C. serve D. last

Key B B

热点二、动词短语辨析

[热点透视] 考查考生在具体语境中运用动词短语能力。

[难点剖析] ①备选词组形近或义近,或二者兼备或同一动词不同搭配;

② 除涉及词义辨析外,还结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查。

[考题盘点]

4.(03-31)News reports say peace talks between the two countries ____with no agreement reached.

A. have broken down B. have broken out

C. have broken in D. have broken up

此题还涉及时态,增加了试题难度。考查同一动词不同搭配,break up表打碎,化合物分解,大学放假等;break down 表(机器等)坏掉,(计划、谈判等)失败,物理分解等;故选A。

5.(04-32)You can take anything from the shelf and read ,but please _____the books when you’ve finished with them.

A. put on B. put down

C. put back D. put off

put是考生熟悉的词,故此题难度不大,据题意put back 表放回原处,故选C。

[备考策略] ①对词义相近短语加强词义辨析,如:make up(构成,组成),take up(占据时间、空间),keep up (保持),hold up(延误、举起);

②部分词组本身就表被动,如:come up(被提出);还有一部分词组无被动语态,如:come about, break out等。

[过关训练]

6. (京04-35) I don’t ______rock roll. It’s much too noisy for my taste.

A. go after B. go away with

C. go into D. go in for

7. (津04-33 ) It was not a serious illness, and she soon _____it.

A. got over B. got on with

C. got around D. got out of

Key D A

热点三:动词时态

[热点透视] 进行时、过去时和完成时是考试热点。

[难点剖析] ①备选答案涉及不同时态的辨析,主要是:一般现在时和一般过去时、一般将来时和过去进行时、过去进行时或一般现在时和完成时、现在完成时和现在完成进行时;

②结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查。

[考题盘点]

8. (03-27) All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness______.

A. has grown B. is growing

C. grew D. had grown

据as可知主从句时态应保持一致,故选C。

9 . (04-30) My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I ____half of it.

A. was missing B. had missed

C. will miss D. missed

从连词so得知前后句时态应保持一致,据语境,故选D。

[备考策略] 深入情景,揣摩动作发生顺序;重视题干暗示作用,如时间副词、并列或从属连词等;善于运用时态呼应规律。

[训练过关]

10. (京04-25) Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ____going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet.

A. had considered B. has been considering

C. considered D. is going to consider

11. (津04-28) — What were you doing when Tony phoned you?

— I had finished my work and_____ to take a shower.

A. had started B. started

C. have started D. was starting

Key B D

热点四:动词语态

[热点透视] 结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查;在具体语境中恰当选用语态能力。

[难点剖析] ①将构成方式为“vt. +n. + prep.”的动词短语故意变为被动语态,增加试题的干扰性。

例 Much attention should be paid to watching the patients.

②“get+p.p”也可表被动,也是考查热点。

③还有一些过去分词已转化为形容词,失去被动意义,如:hidden, dressed, lost, seated, etc. 仅表状态。

④用主动表被动几种情况:vi.(write\open\sell\re-ad,etc.) 后跟副词作状语,说明主语特征;won’t +do ,表不起作用,句子主语为物,be worth doing ,sth +needs\demands\wants+doing 表示“需要”的意义。

[考题盘点]

12. (粤04-21)All the employees except the manager _____to work online at home.

A. encourages B. encourage

C. is encouraged D. are encouraged

据题意应用被动语态,故选D。

13. (沪04-30)The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____to eat more fruit and vegetables.

A. persuade B. will persuade

C. be persuaded D. are persuaded

答案C形式不对,应用被动语态,故选D。

[备考策略]全国卷近三年单纯考查语态的题目没有,结合时态对考生进行考查是考试热点;据题干所反映关系,即主动还是被动,从而恰当选用语态。

[过关训练]

14. (京04-27)The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____by 2008.

A. has been completed

B. has completed

C. will have been completed

D. will have completed

15. (苏04-26)More patients _____in hospital this year than last year.

A. treated B. have treated

C. had been treated D. have been treated

Key C D

热点一:动词词义辨析

[热点透视]考查考生在特定语境中恰当运用动词能力。

[难点剖析] 备选动词词义相近,用法相似。

[考题盘点]

1.(03-25)If anybody calls ,tell them I’m out ,and ask them to ______their name and address.

A. pass B. write C. take D. leave

据题意应选leave, 表“留下”。其余动词不合题意,故选D。

[备考策略] ①结合语境,从区别词义着手;其次从用法上加以区别,如后跟to do\doing做宾语 ,还是跟双宾语,或者是复合宾语等。

②加强对考纲内重要近义动词的复习。如:spend ,waste , take, kill;raise, keep, support, feed等。

[过关训练]

2.(沪04-46) Hospital staff burst into cheers after doctors completed a 20-hour operation to have ___one-year-old twins at the head.

A. isolated B. separated

C. divided D. removed

3.(浙04-30) If you are feeling so tired ,perhaps a little sleep would ______.

A. act B. help C. serve D. last

Key B B

热点二、动词短语辨析

[热点透视] 考查考生在具体语境中运用动词短语能力。

[难点剖析] ①备选词组形近或义近,或二者兼备或同一动词不同搭配;

② 除涉及词义辨析外,还结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查。

[考题盘点]

4.(03-31)News reports say peace talks between the two countries ____with no agreement reached.

A. have broken down B. have broken out

C. have broken in D. have broken up

此题还涉及时态,增加了试题难度。考查同一动词不同搭配,break up表打碎,化合物分解,大学放假等;break down 表(机器等)坏掉,(计划、谈判等)失败,物理分解等;故选A。

5.(04-32)You can take anything from the shelf and read ,but please _____the books when you’ve finished with them.

A. put on B. put down

C. put back D. put off

put是考生熟悉的词,故此题难度不大,据题意put back 表放回原处,故选C。

[备考策略] ①对词义相近短语加强词义辨析,如:make up(构成,组成),take up(占据时间、空间),keep up (保持),hold up(延误、举起);

②部分词组本身就表被动,如:come up(被提出);还有一部分词组无被动语态,如:come about, break out等。

[过关训练]

6. (京04-35) I don’t ______rock roll. It’s much too noisy for my taste.

A. go after B. go away with

C. go into D. go in for

7. (津04-33 ) It was not a serious illness, and she soon _____it.

A. got over B. got on with

C. got around D. got out of

Key D A

热点三:动词时态

[热点透视] 进行时、过去时和完成时是考试热点。

[难点剖析] ①备选答案涉及不同时态的辨析,主要是:一般现在时和一般过去时、一般将来时和过去进行时、过去进行时或一般现在时和完成时、现在完成时和现在完成进行时;

②结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查。

[考题盘点]

8. (03-27) All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness______.

A. has grown B. is growing

C. grew D. had grown

据as可知主从句时态应保持一致,故选C。

9 . (04-30) My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I ____half of it.

A. was missing B. had missed

C. will miss D. missed

从连词so得知前后句时态应保持一致,据语境,故选D。

[备考策略] 深入情景,揣摩动作发生顺序;重视题干暗示作用,如时间副词、并列或从属连词等;善于运用时态呼应规律。

[训练过关]

10. (京04-25) Now that she is out of a job, Lucy ____going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet.

A. had considered B. has been considering

C. considered D. is going to consider

11. (津04-28) — What were you doing when Tony phoned you?

— I had finished my work and_____ to take a shower.

A. had started B. started

C. have started D. was starting

Key B D

热点四:动词语态

[热点透视] 结合时态、语态对考生进行综合考查;在具体语境中恰当选用语态能力。

[难点剖析] ①将构成方式为“vt. +n. + prep.”的动词短语故意变为被动语态,增加试题的干扰性。

例 Much attention should be paid to watching the patients.

②“get+p.p”也可表被动,也是考查热点。

③还有一些过去分词已转化为形容词,失去被动意义,如:hidden, dressed, lost, seated, etc. 仅表状态。

④用主动表被动几种情况:vi.(write\open\sell\re-ad,etc.) 后跟副词作状语,说明主语特征;won’t +do ,表不起作用,句子主语为物,be worth doing ,sth +needs\demands\wants+doing 表示“需要”的意义。

[考题盘点]

12. (粤04-21)All the employees except the manager _____to work online at home.

A. encourages B. encourage

C. is encouraged D. are encouraged

据题意应用被动语态,故选D。

13. (沪04-30)The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____to eat more fruit and vegetables.

A. persuade B. will persuade

C. be persuaded D. are persuaded

答案C形式不对,应用被动语态,故选D。

[备考策略]全国卷近三年单纯考查语态的题目没有,结合时态对考生进行考查是考试热点;据题干所反映关系,即主动还是被动,从而恰当选用语态。

[过关训练]

14. (京04-27)The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____by 2008.

A. has been completed

B. has completed

C. will have been completed

D. will have completed

15. (苏04-26)More patients _____in hospital this year than last year.

A. treated B. have treated

C. had been treated D. have been treated

Key C D

热点五:动词语气

[热点透视] 祈使句结构(结构中连词、陈述句的时态和直接以动词开头构成的祈使句与非谓语动词的区别是热点。)

[难点剖析] ①祈使句(动词或动词短语)+and\or +谓语,用将来时或情态动词的陈述句;

②否定结构的构成:直接在祈使句前加Don’t\Never;

③反意疑问句的构成:以let’s…构成的反意疑问句,用shall we提问;其余情况用will\ won’t you 提问。

[考题盘点]

16. (03-24) —Sorry, Joe. I didn’t mean to …

—Don’t call me “Joe”. I’m Mr. Parker,and _____ forget it!

A. do B. didn’t

C. did D. don’t

此题考查祈使句否定结构的构成,同时涉及时态。句末感叹号很重要,据题意选D。

17.(04-22)Let’s keep to the point or we _____any decisions.

A. will never reach B. have never reached

C. never reach D. never reached

据难点剖析得知,陈述句用将来时,故选A。

[备考策略] 近三年没有出现有关虚拟语气的题目,以前出现if条件句中虚拟语气的基本用法;牢固掌握上述难点剖析中的第一条。

[过关训练]

18.(沪04-44)— English has a large vocabulary, hasn’t it?

—Yes. _____more words and expressions and you will find it easier to read and communicate.

A. Know B. Knowing

C. To know D. Known

19.(鄂04-34) _____straight on and you’ll see a church. You won’t miss it.

A. Go B. Going

C. If you go D. When going

Key A A

热点六:系动词

[热点透视] 系动词的基本用法;get+p.p。

[难点剖析] ①系动词后跟形容词或名词作表语,不用被动语态,无进行时。become后跟名词作表语时,若名词不表职位则保留冠词;turn后不接冠词。 ②seem\look\appear的区别;

③continue\stay\last\keep\remain既可作动词又可作系动词,注意各自不同用法。

表一

单词 意义区别 用法区别 相同点

appear 外表给人的印象,暗含事实并非如此 There appears to be; It appears that;Sb appears to do 后跟to be;均可跟as if\like

seem 判断有一定依据,接近事实 There seems to be; It seems that;Sb seems to do

look 视觉给人的印象 Sb looks to be

表二

单词 特殊用法

last 表“够用,足够维持”讲,用作系动词。如:The water supply should last another two days.作“延续、持续”讲,后常接adv.\prep. 如:The hot weather will last for three days.;lasting

continue 延伸How far does the road continue? ;continue to do\doing; 继续走、接着说We continued along the road for some time.;continued继续地、连续地

remain 别人离开后继续留在某地(指人或物);It remains to be done有待于;It only remains for me to say\thank 我最后想说﹨感谢;remaining 剩余的;保存,留存Few of his works remain.

stay 人临时性地留在某地,过访或做客;stay to diner\for lunch;stay home

keep 经营; 赡养,饲养,照顾;keep doing ;保鲜、食物不坏Eat the fish because it won’t keep till tomorrow.;庆祝,过(节日等)keep Christmas

[考题盘点]

20. (03-30)Why don’t you put the meat in the fridge? It will _____fresh for several days.

A. be stayed B. stay

C. be staying D. have stayed

系动词不用于被动语态,故选B。

21. (04-28)Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you won’t have time to _____before the party.

A. get changed B. get change

C. get changing D. get to change

此题考查get +p.p 的用法。此结构既可表被动又可表状态,故选A。

[备考策略] ①掌握常见系动词的基本用法,如:come true, go bad, fall ill, grow rich等;

②联系记忆turn \come out to be以及promise(表预示),make(表变为,证明为,如:If you train hard, you will make a good teacher.);consider\think\believe\suppose\etc.+ to be ,尤其是上述动词用于被动语态中,务必注意to 后时态和语态。

例 The flu is believed to be caused by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.

[过关训练]

22. (鄂04-30) On hearing the news of the accident in the coal mine, she _____pale.

A. got B. changed

C. went D. appeared

23. (沪04-34) The flowers _____sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.

A. to smell B. smelling

C. smelt D. to be smelt

Key C B

热点七:情态动词

[热点透视] 情态动词表推测的用法;情态动词的完成时。

[难点剖析] must\can’t\shouldn’t\needn’t\ought to\etc.+ have done 的意义及用法;shall 用于二、三人称表允诺,命令,警告,强制等;must, can, may表推测用法见下表。

表三

单词 用法

must 用于肯定句中,肯定语气最强。must not表“禁止”。

can 不用于肯定句中,肯定语气次之。若用于肯定句中,表偶尔一时的特征。can’t表“不可能”。

may 用于肯定句中,肯定语气最弱。may not表“可能不”。

[考题盘点]

24.(03-28) A left-luggage office is a place where bags ______be left for a short time, especially at a railway station.

A. should B. can

C. must D. will

此题考查can表可以、能够的用法,故选B。

25.(04-29) — Isn’t that Ann’s husband over there?

— No, it ____be him—I’m sure he doesn’t wear glasses.

A. can’t B. must not

C. won’t D. may not

can’t 表不可能,语气肯定,破折号加以注释,据题意,选A。

[备考策略]①考生应熟练掌握情态动词used to\would表过去常常的区别;can\may表许可的区别;should\ought to表应该的区别;could\be able to表能力的区别。

②侧重于情态动词表推测的用法和情态动词的完成时。

[过关训练]

26. (辽04-29) —Mum, I’ve been studying English since 8 o’clock. _____I go out and play with Tom for a while?

— No, I’m afraid not. Besides, it’s raining outside now.

A. Can’t B. Wouldn’t

C. May not D. Won’t

27. (浙04-26) I ____pay Tracy a visit, but I’m not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.

A. should B. might

C. would D. could

Key A A

热点八:非谓语动词

[热点透视] 非谓语动词作状语、定语和补语

[难点剖析] ①非谓语动词作状语:注意前后逻辑主语一致;结合省略对考生进行综合考查;区别祈使句式和并列结构,关注标点符号,在解题时尤为关键。

②非谓语动词作定语:不定式作定语表动作尚未发生,与所修饰名词构成动宾关系。若不定式逻辑主语同时也为句子主语,用主动表被动,反之用被动(如:I’m leaving on business. Do you have anything to be taken there?),另还需注意不及物动词加介词;现在分词作定语表动作正在进行或习惯性经常性动作;过去分词作定语表动作完成,与所修饰名词构成动宾关系。

③非谓语动词作补语:能后跟非谓语动词作宾补的动词数量有限,格外注意使役动词和感官动词;为增加试题的干扰性,将宾语和补语分离改作定语从句的先行词(如:The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see carried out the next year.)或将作宾补改作主补(如:The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.);注意“with+ n.\pron.+补语”结构的用法。

④动词不定式作状语、定语时,注意避开定向思维的干扰。

例 Which do you enjoy to kill your spare time—watching TV or playing football?

⑤疑问词+to do 的用法。

例 It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows what to do with it.

[考题盘点]

28. (02-34) The research is so designed that once ____nothing can be done to change it.

A. begins B. having begun

C. beginning D. begun

此题结合省略考查过去分词的用法,完整的从句为once it was begun,故选D。

29. (03-22) A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _____in the kitchen.

A. smoke B. smoking

C. to smoke D. smoked

现在分词作主补,是find+n.+doing sth的变形,故选B。

[备考策略] 明辨关系,看动作进展,充分考虑时态和语态,慎重选择三种形式。

[过关训练]

30. (京04-29)_____in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home.

A. To wait B. Have waited

C. Having waited D. To have waited

31. The disk, digitally ____in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night.

A. recorded B. recording

C. to be recorded D. having recorded

Key: C A

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