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典型高考英语陷阱题详解•代词类

更新时间:2021-04-18 16:52来源:未知

1. _____ with any common sense can tell the difference between the two.
A. Who B. Whoever
C. Anyone D. Who ever
陷阱容易误选B。
分析最佳答案为C。有的同学误选B主要是因为受以下这类句子的影响:
Whoever comes will be welcome. 任何人来都欢迎。
Whoever wants the book may have it. 任何人要这书都可拿去。
Whoever gets the job will have a lot of work. 谁要是得到这份工作就有很多事要做。
以上三句中 whoever 引导的均为主语从句,其中的 whoever均可换成 anyone who,但是不能换成 anyone。以上试题从表面上看,与以上各例很相似,其实它们有本质的不同,即 _____ with any common sense 中没有谓语动词,所以我们不能选 whoever。此题的正确答案为C,anyone 为句子主语,with any common sense 为修饰 anyone 的定语。现将此题稍作改动如下,答案选B:
_______ has any common sense can tell the difference between the two.
A. Who B. Whoever
C. Anyone D. Who ever

2. The dictionary is really useful. Every boy and girl _____ it and they each _____ to buy one.
A. like, want B. likes, wants
C. likes, want D. like, wants
陷阱容易误选D。认为前面一空填复数动词,因为其主语是 boy and girl,为复数;第二空填单数动词,因为其前有 each,表示"每一个"。
分析事实上,此题应选C。因为按英语习惯,every 后接两个并列的单数名词作主语时,谓语动词要用单数,即第一空填 likes;而第二空要填复数动词 want,是因为其前的主语是 they 而不是 each(each 为主语的同位语)。

3. Everyone knows that Canada is larger than _____ country in Asia.
A. any B. any other
C. other D. another
陷阱容易误选B。选择的依据是以下大家熟悉的句型(其中的 other 不可省略):
He is taller than any other student in our class. 他是我们班最高的。
English is more widely used in international intercourse than any other language today. 现今英语在国际交往中比其他任何语言用得都广。
分析但是上面一题与这类句子有所不同。这类句型到底该不该加 other,主要应看所谈论的对象是否在比较的范围之内:若在范围之内,则用 other (以排除自己与自己比较);若不在范围之内,则不用 other。比较下面一题:
China is larger than _____ country in Asia.
A. any B. any other C. other D. another
此题应选B,因为 China 在 Asia 的范围之内。假若选A,则表示"中国比亚洲的任何国家都大",而中国本身也是亚洲国家,由此则得出"中国比中国大"的荒谬结论。而选B,则表示"中国比亚洲任何其他国家要大",这才合乎事实。

4. "What do you think of them?" "I don't know _____ is better, so I've taken _____ of them."
A. what, both B. what, none
C. which, both D. which, none
陷阱几个干扰均有可能误选。
分析最佳答案为C。做好此题的关键是要注意句中的 better 一词,由于better 用的是比较级,说明比较的对象应是两者,由此可推知第二空应填both;另一方面,由于所谈论的是两者,说明选择范围比较窄、比较明确,所以第一空应填 which。

5. "Would you like a cup of coffee or a glass of beer?" "____ will do, but milk is _____ popular with me."
A. Neither, not B. Both, more
C. Either, the most D. All, the most
陷阱很容易误选B,因为前文提到 coffee 和 beer 为两者,所以有的同学就认为应选 both 和 more 与之对应(more 为比较级,指两者比较)。
分析做对此题的关键是要注意到下文提到的 milk既不是 coffee 也不是 beer,而是除这两者外的第三者,故第二空应填 the most,即此题最佳答案为C。

6. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _____ it was?
A. where B. what
C. how D. which
此题答案选D,主要与上文的some book or other (某一本书)这一语境有关,全句句意为:"我在某一本书上读到过它,是哪一本书这很重要吗?"请看类似试题:
(1) "Who told you?" "Oh, somebody or other, I've forgotten _____."
A. what B. when
C. which D. who
此题最佳答案为D。句意为:"谁告诉你的?""噢,有个人,我忘记是哪一个了。"
(2) Some of the students were late for the meeting, but I can't remember _____.
A. what B. when
C. which D. whom
此题最佳答案为C。句意为"有些学生开会迟到了,但我不记得是哪些学生了"。

7. These trousers are dirty and wet - I'll change into my _____.
A. another B. trousers
C. others D. other
陷阱容易误选A、B。
分析最佳答案为C。是从语法上看,another 后通常接单数名词,而不接trousers 这样的复数名词(若用 another pair 则可以);也不能选 trousers 是因为填它句子意思不通。最佳答案应选C,others 相当于 other trousers,其中的 other 与前面的 these 相对照。

8. Her lecture was hard to follow because she kept jumping from one subject to _____.
A. other B. the other
C. the others D. another
陷阱容易误选B。选择依据可能是one ... the other ...这一常用结构。
分析最佳答案为D。使用one ... the other ... 时,我们通常是针对两者而言的,即指"两者中的一个......,另一个......";如果所谈论的情况不是针对两者而言的,而是针对多者而言的,那么我们就不宜在 one 后使用 the other,而考虑用 another。又如(答案均选D,即选 another):
(1) Those cakes look delicious. Could I have _____ one?
A. other B. the other
C. the others D. another
(2) I have many such novels. I'll bring _____ tomorrow.
A. other B. the other
C. the others D. another
(3) Saying is one thing and doing is _____.
A. other B. the other
C. the others D. another
比较以下各例:
(1) Shut ____ eye, Jim.
A. another B. some other
C. other D. the other
答案选D,因为人的眼睛只有两只,故用 one ... the other ... 结构。
(2) It's sometimes hard to tell one twin from _____.
A. another B. some other
C. other D. the other
答案选D,twin 意为"孪生子之一"、"双胞胎之一",即指两者之一,故用 one ... the other ... 这一结构。

9. There are four bedrooms, ______ with its own bathroom.
A. all B. each
C. every D. either
此题容易误选A,认为既然前面出现了 four bedrooms,故填 all 与之对应。其实,此题的最佳答案应为B,原因是空格后的隐藏信息 its,它表示空格处应填一个单数代词,但是不能选C,因为 every 不能这样单独使用。

10. "It's said that he is a wise leader." "Oh, no, he is _____ but a wise leader."
A. anything B. anyone
C. anybody D. anywhere
陷阱容易误选B、C。因为句子主语指人,似乎只有B、C才与之一致。
分析其实,正确答案应选A。因为 anything but 是习语,意为"根本不是"或"一点也不",不仅可用于事物,也可用于人。如:
I'll do anything but that. 我绝不会干那种事。
The party was anything but a success. 晚会根本不成功。
Her father was anything but a poet. 她父亲根本不是诗人。
Such a man was anything but a hero. 那样的人绝不算英雄。

11. Tell _______ you like - it makes no difference to me.
A. anyone B. who
C. whoever D. what
陷阱容易从中文字面来理解而误选A或B。
分析最佳答案选 C。但若将A, B两项合起来,即用 anyone who这样的形式则也可以。选 C,whoever 引导一个宾语从句,用作动词 tell的宾语。同样地,请看以下类似试题:
(1) _____ comes is welcome.
A. Anyone B. Who
C. Anyone who D. Everyone
此题很容易误选A,因为从汉语意思来分析,可理解为"任何人来都欢迎",但若选A,此句的结构是混乱的,句中有两个谓语动词 comes 和 is,但却只是一个句子。此题应选C,anyone 是句子主语,who comes 是修饰 anyone 的定语从句。
(2) _____ comes to see me, tell him I'm out.
A. Anyone B. Who
C. Whoever D. Everyone
此题很容易按汉语意思误选A,其实应选C。whoever 引导的是让步状语从句,相当于 no matter who。
(3) Sarah hopes to become a friend of _____ shares her interests.
A. anyone B. whomever
C. whoever D. no matter who
此题不能选A,假若选A,应在其后加上 who,即用 anyone who;也不能选B,一是因为空格处应填一个作主语的词(因为其后有谓语动词 shares),二是因为在现代英语中 whomever 这个词已基本废除 (也就是说,在现代英语中 whoever 既用作主语,也用作宾语,如:Give it to whoever you see in the meeting-room. 你在会议室里看见谁就把它给谁);也不能选D,因为 no matter who只用于引导让步状语从句,不用于引导名词性从句。此题正确答案为C,whoever 在此相当于 anyone who。
比较下例,答案应选A,而不是B、C或D(注意句意):
It was a matter of _____ would take the position.
A. who B. whoever
C. whom D. whomever

12. The teacher told us that the problem was not _____ easy and that we should think _____ over carefully.
A. such, it B. that, it
C. such, 不填 D. that,不填
陷阱容易根据汉语字面意思误选C。
分析最佳答案选 B。第一空填that,that 用作副词,相当于 so,又如:
Is it always that hot? 总那么热吗?(其中的 that hot 可以换成 so hot,但不能换成 such hot)
I can only tell you that much. 我只能告诉你这么多。(其中的 that much 可以换成 so much,但不能换成 such much)
注意第一空不能填such,因为such 不用作副词,即它不用于修饰形容词。
另外,汉语中说"好好想一想",通常可以不带宾语,但英语中的think over 是及物动词,如果用它来表示"好好想一想",应根据上下文的语境让它带上适当的宾语,所以本题应用 think it over,相当于 think the problem over。

13. The camera isn't good enough; I want to change ______.
A. another B. a good one
C. it with another D. it for another
陷阱容易根据汉语字面意思误选A、B。
分析此题最佳答案为D。英语中的 change sth 表示的是"换某物",sth 是被换的东西,而 change sth for sth else 表示的才是"用某物换另一物"。比较:
That coat was too large and I had to change it. 那件外套太大了,我得去换一件。
That coat was too large and I had to change it for a smaller one. 那件外套太大了,我得去换一件小一点的。

14. I agree with most of what you said, but I don't agree with ______.
A. everything B. anything
C. something D. nothing
陷阱此题容易误选 B,生搬硬套不定代词用法规则:something 用于肯定句,anything 用于否定句或疑问句。
分析其实此题应选 A,注意前文的 I agree with most of what you said(我同意你说的大部分内容),其后的not 与 everything 构成部分否定,意为"不是所有的都同意",前后两部分用转折连词 but 连接,语气通顺、连贯。请看一个类似的例子:
______ likes money, but money is not ______.
A. Everyone, everything B. Anyone, anything
C. Someone, nothing D. Nobody, everything
最佳答案选A,句意为"大家都喜欢钱,但钱不是万能的"。

15. "Is there ______ here?" "No, Bob and Tim have asked for leave."
A. anybody B. everybody
C. somebody D. nobody
陷阱此题容易误选 A。认为这是一般疑问句,要用 anybody。
分析其实此题应选B,主要与上下文的语境有关。全文语境为:"大家都到齐了吗?""没有,Bob 和Tim 两人请假了。"假若我们将此题作如下变换,则情形就会有所不同:
"Is there ______ here?" "Yes, I'm upstairs. Please come and help me."
A. anybody B. everybody
C. somebody D. nobody
此题的最佳答案应是A,而不是B。
请再看一例:
"Do you have _____ at home now, Mary?" "No, we still have to get some fruit and tea."
A. something B. anything
C. everything D. nothing
答案选C,句意为"玛丽,现在家里东西都准备齐了吗?""还没有,我们还要买些水果和茶。"

16. "If you want a necklace, I'll buy one for you at once." "Oh, no. A necklace is not _____ that I need most."
A. anything B. something
C. nothing D. everything
陷阱此题容易误选A,机械地套用以下规则:something 用于肯定句,anything 用于否定句或疑问句。
分析当然以上规则在通常情况下是有效的,但此句不属通常用法。此题的最佳答案应是B,something 在此的意思不是"某种东西",而是指"那种东西"或"这种东西",即心中最想要的那种东西(相当于 the thing)。同样地,下面几题的最佳答案也是 something,而不是 anything:
(1) It's not _____ that we want to talk about; let's change the subject.
A. anything B. something
C. nothing D. everything
(2) It's not _____ I enjoy; I do it purely out of a sense of duty.
A. anything B. something
C. nothing D. everything
(3) Self-control is not _____ that comes with your birth.
A. anything B. something
C. nothing D. everything
(4) This is not _____ that would disturb me anyway.
A. anything B. something
C. nothing D. everything

17. Some say one thing, but _____.
A. other, another B. others, another
C. others, the other D. the others, others
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析最佳答案选B。but others another 为 but others say another 之省略。在并列句中,若后面分句与前面分句有相同的词,常把后一分句中的相同部分给省略掉,以避免重复。如:
One soldier was killed and another wounded. 有一名士兵被打死,另一名被打伤。(wounded 前省略了 was)
I work in a factory and my brother on a farm. 我在工厂工作,我弟弟在农场工作。(on a farm 前省略了 works)
My room is on the second floor and his on the third. 我的房间在三楼,他的房间在四楼。(on the third 前省略了 is)

18. He is a hard-working student, _____ who will be successful in whatever career he chooses.
A. that B. he
C. one D. which
陷阱几个干扰项均有可能误选。
分析此题答案选C,one 相当于 a student。类似地,以下各题也选one,它们分别相当于 a table, a break, a question, a Mexican carpet, a moment:
(1) A table made of steel costs more than _______ made of wood.
A. one B. it
C. those D. which
(2)"Why don't we take a little break?" "Didn't we just have _____?"
A. it B. that
C. one D. this
(3) The question is _____ of great importance.
A. that B. it
C. one D. what
(4) She wants a Mexican carpet, but she can't afford to buy ______.
A. one   B. it
C. them   D. the one
(5) Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, _____ I will always treasure.
A. that B. one
C. it D. what